Electrical Projects

Peak Load Reduction

The peak demand charge is an incentive to try creative ways to lower the peak electrical use at a facility. Controls are the means to accomplish this end. Many buildings have been built with an emergency generator sized to handle a portion of the building load, to ensure a safe and speedy exit of the occupants. The National Electrical Code allows this generator to be run to the extent that its regular operation in emergency circumstances is not jeopardized. This is even permitted in hospitals, […]

Electrical Projects

Utility-Rate Analysis

Many utilities have a dozen or more different rate structures for commercial clients, each with many different provisions and riders. This elaborate billing scheme changes continually, according to the prevailing regulatory climate, legislative mandates, and fuel costs. One of the first things an energy auditor does is to consult the utility on behalf of the client to obtain a copy of the latest bills and the applicable rate schedule. It’s not unusual to find billing errors that will save money before the energy study even […]

Electrical Projects

Electrical Equipment HVAC Loads

A significant part of the HVAC load is attributable to electronic equipment located in the space. Some of the equipment used, such as refrigerators, water heaters, or freezers, runs all the time. So their use factor will be 100 percent or 1.0. Other items will require a fractional use factor, according to the use of the item during the peak demand hour—typically mid-afternoon in July or August for the cooling season. As an example, take an office that has various equipment located in a large […]

Electrical Projects

Electrical Overview

The electrical power distribution system is mostly forgotten as a way to reduce energy consumption in a facility. Engineering staff are familiar with the benefits of high-efficiency motors and energy-saving lamps, but few dare to venture much further into electrical power conservation. Electricity is not distributed throughout a building free. As the electricity flows through wires and busbars, it must overcome natural resistance in the conducting metal. This causes a slight reduction in voltage and diminishes the power available at the point of use. The […]